Types of Nebulae's Exists in our Universe

 Hello guys and Welcome back and in today's article we're going to review the types of nebulae that exists. A nebula is defined as a cloud of gas and dust that consists mostly of hydrogen. Typically there are other trace elements that exist within the cloud such as water, formaldehyde alcohol, and other trace elements. But they mostly consists of hydrogen. Now, before we dive into the different types of nebulae, let's go over the singular and plural versions of this word just so there's no confusion. So when we talk about a nebula that's when we're looking at one specific nebula, so that's a singular version of this word. But if we say nebulae that means that is plural so more than one nebula we say nebulae.There are five main types of nebulae and they can be broken down into two categories. The ones listed at the top such as absorption, reflection, and emission are known to be diffuse nebulae. So, they do not have the definitive shape. In fact they're often named after objects that they resemble.The other types of nebulae include planetary nebulae, and supernova remnants.The shape of these nebulae are typically spherical in structure. Now let's see and take a look at what these different types of nebulae look like. So our first one that we're going to examine is called an absorption nebula. The way this one works is that it is such a dense dark cloud that light cannot pass through it . It almost absorbs that light that is passing through it.

The classic example of an absorption nebula is the Horsehead Nebula, which is located Orion right near the belt and sword.As you can see there's no definitive shape. It's not spherical, it can be considered to be asymmetrical, but many nebulae are named after what they resemble. If you take a look at this you can sort of see how it would resemble a horse's head.

Another classic example of a dark nebula, or absorption nebula, is a snake nebula. This one is located in the constellation called Ophiuchus. You can just see here that this cloud of gas and dust is just so thick that light cannot pass through it. The next type of nebula is called an emission nebula. These are clouds of gas and dust that are glowing brightly due to fluorescence. Inside this cloud of gas and dust, there are tiny stars that are starting to be born. What this does is- it heats up the cloud and it causes it to glow.

The Orion Nebula in the constellation of Orion is a classic example of an emission nebula. Where would you find this- if you would look at the belt stars of Orion, right here, the Orion Nebula sits right in his sword. There are other spectacular nebula right around the belt stars as well. In fact this is where the Horsehead Nebula is as well. Here are other great examples of emission nebulae.

To the left we have the North America nebula. This is located in the constellation Cygnus and as you probably notice it does resemble a continent of North America.

But even cooler, this is the ghost nebula. This is located in the constellation Cepheus. It's just so cool how you have this cloud and inside of it you have a little baby star. That star is starting to heat up a nebula and it glows. It does look ghost-like for sure. So again another example of how we are naming things after what they resemble. Even ,here, these kind of look like little ghosts coming out as well. The third type of diffuse nebulae, or irregular shaped nebulae, would be the reflection type.This is unique in the sense that it is illuminated.This cloud of gas and dust is illuminated by the glow of nearby stars. Typically reflection nebulae are more blue in color because the dust tends to scatter blue light more effectively than red. So typically these nebulae are more blue in color. Te Pleiades star cluster located in the constellation Taurus is another classic example of this type of nebulae.

The next nebula I would like to share with you is called the Trifid Nebula also known as Messier 20. This one is very interesting because it is a rare combination of the three types of diffuse nebulae that exist. So, when we're looking at this picture, we're looking towards the center of the Milky Way Galaxy and right through the constellation Sagittarius. I'm going to bring your attention to this area and this is the part of the picture that we are going to zoom in. and this is what we find. So the Trifid nebula shows each type of diffuse nebulae that exist. So, the dark portions. all right in here, that is considered an absorption nebulae, or a dark nebula. Then the pink areas, all throughout here, would be considered to be an emission nebula. Then up here, this bluish area is considered to be a reflection nebula. So again, the fact that these are all combined into one type is very, very interesting. This is one of those few spots in the sky that definitely attracts many different types of astronomers because you get to see three types in one specific astronomical object. So just to recap. So far we have explored the diffuse types of nebula. The ones that do not have a definitive shape.Those were absorption, reflection, and emission. Now let's go ahead and look at the types of nebulae that do have a definitive shape. Our first type of spherical nebulae are the planetary nebulae. The name is slightly misleading, because these types of nebulae have nothing to do with planets. They were first named when William Hersche, in 1785, observed these through a telescope. He thought that they looked very similar to the spherical shape of a planet, so that's why they were named planetary nebulae. But in fact,this object is really a dying star in the end stages of its life. This is eventually what will happen to our Sun. So this star, right here, in the center is not truly a star anymore because it's not undergoing fusion. It's run out of hydrogen, helium, and all the elements it was using at one time in its core.This is all that's left- is this little white dwarf star. It's the hot leftover core of a main-sequence star, a regular-type star. These outer layers are the gases that are being blown off the star. They really have some beautiful shapes. So this is really at the end stages of the star and typically at the end of the red giant phase. You have this little white dwarf left in the center. So let's take a look at some other ones. The Eskimo Nebula, here in Gemini. You can probably observe while it has that name because it definitely looks like an Eskimo with its hood up.

Then we have the Dumbbell Nebula this is located in Vulpecula which is known as a fox in the southern hemisphere.

If we were to go back to this one this is known as the Cat's Eye Nebula in Draco the dragon. The final type of nebulae that we will examine is called a supernova remnant. These are some of the coolest looking nebulae that exist. So how these form is that these are the leftover remains of a supernova explosion. You can really just tell from this picture that this really looks like it was blown to smithereens. Everything is moving outwards from the center. Typically within these supernova remnants there are pulsars inside of there. So, hot neutron stars that are spinning very, very rapidly and often send out radio signals.

The one that we're looking at here is called the Crab Nebula located in Taurus. Let's take a look at where that would be so if you have Orion, right down here, and use about stars to help you find thev-shaped face of Taurus. Then you come down to the lower horn, the Crab Nebula is located right near the tip of the horn in Taurus at the bull. So what's interesting about supernovas is that this is the celestial event that occurs when all the elements on the periodic table are created. Regular stars,like our Sun, do not have the ability or the mass that they need in order to fuse together higher elements. The largest element that any star could form is iron and once iron starts to form inside of the star it becomes unstable. The iron starts to absorb the energy therefore causing it to be unstable then kaboom that's when a supernova occurs. This whole shell of clouds and gas and dust is still expanding to this day. If you were to look up different types of pictures of super number supernova remnants they really do have this this spherical but also irregular structure, which really just looks like it was blown up. Let's review the five different types of nebulae that exists and the two different categories that they are in. So,all the nebulae that are listed at the top- those are a regular shaped nebulae.They're diffuse, they do not have a definitive shape. If they do have a shape sometimes their name will reflect that shape like the Horsehead Nebula;which is considered to be a Dark Nebula in the sense that it's really absorbing the light that is surrounding it because the clouds are so thick that light cannot pass through. We also have reflection nebulae. These are the ones that are reflecting the light that are coming from nearby stars. The dust that is located within the cloud is scattering the light ,causing that blue colour. Then the final diffuse type of nebula are emission nebulae. These are ones that are glowing because the stars that are located inside are starting to become hot and it causes all the gas inside to glow due to fluorescence. Now we have the spherical type shape.That one would be the planetary nebulae. These are the nebulae that are dying they are at the end of their life. They're just throwing off all the outer layers, but they have this very unique, sometimes almost a series of rings around rings with each other. Even though they're named planetary nebulae,they do not have anything to do with planets. They just inherited that name because at one time astronomers thought it looked like planet. Then finally we have supernova remnants and these are violent reactions of a dying star in which pretty much the whole thing was blown apart many different elements were created. It also creates a super cool shape. Often there are little pulsars inside of here, little neutron stars that are spinning rapidly and giving off radio stars. 

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Thanks for Reading, Have a Good Day.

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